about Reiser Part 1

Key points from Reiser’s (2001) “A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part 1: A History of Instructional Media”

Instructional Design and Technology: “analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institution and the workplace.”

1910- first catalog of instructional films

1913- Thomas Edison: “Books will soon be obsolete in the schools…It is possible to teach every branch of human knowledge withe the motion picture. Our school system will be completely changed in the next ten years.” said after the motion picture projector became one of the first media devices used in schools.

1914-1923- visual instruction movement

1920’s through 1930’s- audio-visiual instruction movement: increased interest in instructional media because of advancements in radio broadcasting, sound recording, sound motion pictures; audio-visual added a degree of “realism”

1941-1945- Division of Visual Aids for War Training

1943-1945- US ArmyAirFrce produced more than 400 training films and 600 film strips…contributed to efficient military training

1950’s media comparison studies; Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)

1950’s Theories of Communication: focused on the sender-receiver and the medium (channel) of delivery

1950’s and 1960’s- television for instructional purposes; faced the problem of mediocre instructional quality and/or lack of funding

1970’s educational technology and instructional technology began to replace audio-visual instruction to describe the application of media for instructional purposes

1980’s- although CAI began in the 1950’s, minimal advancaements happened in the 60’s and 70’s until the 1980’s when computers became available to the general public

  • by 1983 40% of elementary schools, 75% of secondary schools had computers being used for instructional purposes

1990’s computers were widely used, but still with minimal instructional impact

1995- the rise of the internet has increased interest in using the Internet for instructional purposes

  • between 1994-95 and 1997-98 higher education distance learning program enrollments nearly doubled, and offering institutions rose from 33% to 44%; 78% of public 4-year institutions offered online courses
  • 1995: 1 computer for every 9 students, 1998: 1 computer for every 6

More recent technologies have allowed for greater learner interaction:

  • between learners and instructional content
  • between learners and the instructor
  • among learners themselves

This is different from earlier technologies which primarily allowed only for interaction between learners and the instructional content

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