about Reiser Part 1

Key points from Reiser’s (2001) “A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part 1: A History of Instructional Media”

Instructional Design and Technology: “analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institution and the workplace.”

1910- first catalog of instructional films

1913- Thomas Edison: “Books will soon be obsolete in the schools…It is possible to teach every branch of human knowledge withe the motion picture. Our school system will be completely changed in the next ten years.” said after the motion picture projector became one of the first media devices used in schools.

1914-1923- visual instruction movement

1920’s through 1930’s- audio-visiual instruction movement: increased interest in instructional media because of advancements in radio broadcasting, sound recording, sound motion pictures; audio-visual added a degree of “realism”

1941-1945- Division of Visual Aids for War Training

1943-1945- US ArmyAirFrce produced more than 400 training films and 600 film strips…contributed to efficient military training

1950’s media comparison studies; Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)

1950’s Theories of Communication: focused on the sender-receiver and the medium (channel) of delivery

1950’s and 1960’s- television for instructional purposes; faced the problem of mediocre instructional quality and/or lack of funding

1970’s educational technology and instructional technology began to replace audio-visual instruction to describe the application of media for instructional purposes

1980’s- although CAI began in the 1950’s, minimal advancaements happened in the 60’s and 70’s until the 1980’s when computers became available to the general public

  • by 1983 40% of elementary schools, 75% of secondary schools had computers being used for instructional purposes

1990’s computers were widely used, but still with minimal instructional impact

1995- the rise of the internet has increased interest in using the Internet for instructional purposes

  • between 1994-95 and 1997-98 higher education distance learning program enrollments nearly doubled, and offering institutions rose from 33% to 44%; 78% of public 4-year institutions offered online courses
  • 1995: 1 computer for every 9 students, 1998: 1 computer for every 6

More recent technologies have allowed for greater learner interaction:

  • between learners and instructional content
  • between learners and the instructor
  • among learners themselves

This is different from earlier technologies which primarily allowed only for interaction between learners and the instructional content

about terms, themes, and theories…

“Learning is the creation and removal of connections between the entities, or the adjustment of the strengths of those connections. A learning theory is, literally, a theory describing how these connections are created or adjusted.” Stephen Downes on connective knowledge

Epistemology: concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge

Ontology: concerned with the nature of being, with questions concerned with what exists or can be said to exist (nature of reality)

The interpretive paradigm


New Media Studies (Janet Murray, CUNY, DePaul)

Great Media Debate

Objectivism & Constructivism


Constructivism, Social Constructivism, Connectivism

Critical Theory

Universal Instruction Design



“Transformative learning is the expansion of consciousness through the transformation of basic worldview and specific capacities of the self; transformative learning is facilitated through consciously directed processes such as appreciatively accessing and receiving the symbolic contents of the unconscious and critically analyzing underlying premises.” (Boyd)

“Transformative learning involves experiencing a deep, structural shift in the basic premises of thought, feelings, and actions. It is a shift of consciousness that dramatically and irreversibly alters our way of being in the world. Such a shift involves our understanding of ourselves and our self-locations; our relationships with other humans and with the natural world; our understanding of relations of power in interlocking structures of class, race and gender; our body awareness, our visions of alternative approaches to living; and our sense of possibilities for social justice and peace and personal joy.” (O’Sullivan)

A learning environment where transformative learning can occur should consider the following:

  • · The role of the teacher. The teacher’s role in establishing an environment that builds trust and care and facilitates the development of sensitive relationships among learners is a fundamental principle of fostering transformative learning. The goal is to create a community of individuals who are “united in a shared experience of trying to make meaning of their life experience”. The teacher also serves as a role model by himself demonstrating a willingness to learn and change.
  • · The role of the learner. Although it is difficult for transformative learning to occur without the teacher playing a key role, participants also have a responsibility for creating the learning environment.
  • · The role of the rational and the affective. Transformative learning has two layers that at times seem to be in conflict: the cognitive, rational, and objective and the intuitive, imaginative, and subjective. Both the rational and the affective play a role in transformative learning. Although the emphasis has been on transformative learning as a rational process, teachers need to consider how they can help students use feelings and emotions both in critical reflection and as a means of reflection.

Definition: Learning Technologies is the study, research, and application of different ways we can use technology for teaching and learning.

How do I fit? How can we use technology to create meaningful learning experiences with adult learners in different contexts (formal and informal learning, higher education and corporate, training and development)